Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS)
The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS v1.1) is an 18-item self-report questionnaire designed to assess Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in adults (18+). This scale is based on the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (2001), and the questions are consistent with DSM criteria, but reworded to better reflect symptom manifestation in adults. This scale is useful for screening and diagnosis of ADHD among adults 18+ and should be used in conjunction with a clinical interview to provide additional clinical information.
Part A contains 6 items and it has been found that these questions are the most predictive of ADHD and are best for use as a screening instrument. Part-B contains 12 additional questions based on DSM criteria that provide additional cues and can serve as further probes into the patient’s symptoms. For a client’s symptoms to be considered consistent with an ADHD diagnosis, they require 4 or more responses at specific severity levels in Part A of the ASRS.
The ASRS has high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88) and concurrent validity (r = 0.84) (Adler et al., 2006).
For a client’s symptoms to be considered consistent with an ADHD diagnosis, they require 4 or more responses in the criterion boxes of Part A (the first 6 questions) of the ASRS. Using this scoring convention, previous studies (e.g., Hines, King & Curry, 2012) report high sensitivity (1.0) and moderate positive predictive power (0.52), suggesting that the ASRS would rarely miss ADHD in an adult who has ADHD. Moreover, the ASRS has moderate specificity (.71) and high negative predictive power (1.0), indicating that this tool is quite successful in not identifying someone with ADHD when they do not have the disorder (Hines, King & Curry, 2012).
Adler et al. (2018) found that in a sample of 22,397 randomly selected adults in the USA that the mean total score was 2.0 (SD = 3.2). Of note, ASRS total scores where significantly related to age, with the 19 to 29 age group mean of 2.99 and over 65 age group mean of 1.23.
Scoring and Interpretation
Three seperate metrics are computed:
–Part A (items 1-6. Scores range from 0 to 6)
If the respondent scores 4 or more in Part-A, then the symptom profile of the individual is considered to be highly consistent with an ADHD diagnosis in adults (Adler et al., 2006; Kessler et al., 2007).
–Part B (items 7-18. Scores range from 0 to 12)
The frequency scores on Part B provide additional cues and can serve as further probes into the patient’s symptom severity and the impact that inattention or hyperactivity has on their life.
– Total Score (and percentile) (scores range from 0 to 18)
Over and above the key interpretation metrics from Part A and Part B, the total score (sum of part A and B) is converted into a percentile to contextualise responses in comparison to normative data (22,397 adults; Adler et al., 2018). For example, a percentile of 90 represents that the respondent scored higher than 90 percent of other typical adults in the community.
While Part A contains the items that have been found to be most predictive of ADHD, looking at the total score (and percentile) can also be informative about diagnosis in cases where the Part A score was only 3. This scale should always be used in conjunction with a clinical interview to provide additional clinical information important for diagnosis.
Depending on the question, responses are either scored as 0 or 1. On items 1-3, 9, 12, 16, and 18 ratings of sometimes, often, or very often are assigned one point (ratings of never or rarely are assigned zero points). For the remaining 11 items, ratings of often or very often are assigned one point (ratings of never, rarely, or sometimes are assigned zero points).
Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Ames, M., Demler, O., Faraone, S., Hiripi, E., Howes, M. J., Jin, R., Secnik, K., Spencer, T., Ustun, T. B., & Walters, E. E. (2005). The World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): a short screening scale for use in the general population. Psychological Medicine, 35(2), 245–256. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291704002892
Adler, L. A., Faraone, S. V., Sarocco, P., Atkins, N., & Khachatryan, A. (2019). Establishing US norms for the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) and characterising symptom burden among adults with self-reported ADHD. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 73(1), e13260. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13260
Adler, L. A., Spencer, T., Faraone, S. V., Kessler, R. C., Howes, M. J., Biederman, J., & Secnik, K. (2006). Validity of pilot Adult ADHD Self- Report Scale (ASRS) to Rate Adult ADHD symptoms. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists, 18(3), 145–148. https://doi.org/10.1080/10401230600801077
Hines, J. L., King, T. S., & Curry, W. J. (2012). The adult ADHD self-report scale for screening for adult attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM, 25(6), 847–853. https://doi.org/10.3122/jabfm.2012.06.120065