Kessler Psychological Distress Scale PLUS (K10+)

The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale Plus (K10+) is a 14-question psychological screening tool designed to identify adults with significant levels of psychological distress, and has the same first 10 questions as the K10, with the addition of four questions asking about the impact of the distress on daily living.


Kessler, R.C., Andrews, G., Colpe, .et al (2002) Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychological Medicine, 32, 959-956


Andrews, G., & Slade, T. (2001). Interpreting scores on the Kessler psychological distress scale (K10). Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 25(6), 494-497.

Brooks, R. T., Beard, J., & Steel, Z. (2006). Factor structure and interpretation of the K10. Psychological assessment, 18(1), 62.

Slade, T., Grove, R., & Burgess, P. (2011). Kessler psychological distress scale: normative data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45(4), 308-316.