Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK)

The TSK is a 17-item self report checklist using a 4-point Likert scale that was developed as a measure of fear of movement or (re)injury.


The original Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) was developed by R. Miller, S. Kopri, and D. Todd, in 1991. This represents a modified version.


Vlaeyen, J. W. S., Kole-Snijders, A. M. J., Boeren, R. G. B., & Van Eek, H. (1995). Fear of movement/(re) injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance. Pain, 62(3), 363-372.

Burwinkle, T., Robinson, J. P., & Turk, D. C. (2005). Fear of movement: factor structure of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. The Journal of Pain, 6(6), 384-391.

Lundberg, M. K. E., Styf, J., & Carlsson, S. G. (2004). A psychometric evaluation of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia-from a physiotherapeutic perspective. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 20(2), 121-133.

Roelofs, J., Goubert, L., Peters, M. L., Vlaeyen, J. W. S., & Crombez, G. (2004). The Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia: further examination of psychometric properties in patients with chronic low back pain and fibromyalgia. European Journal of Pain, 8(5), 495-502.