Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ)

The Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ) is a brief, 10-item, self-report measure of substance dependence intended to capture the essential elements of the dependence syndrome across all substance classes. The LDQ can provide clinicians and researchers with a unitary, continuous, measure of dependence that is not specific to any particular substance (Edwards & Gross, 1976; Edwards, 1986).


Raistrick, D., Bradshaw, J., Tober, G., Weiner, J., Allison, J., & Healey, C. (1994). Development of the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ): a questionnaire to measure alcohol and opiate dependence in the context of a treatment evaluation package. Addiction , 89(5), 563–572. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1994.tb03332.x



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Kelly, J. F., Magill, M., Slaymaker, V., & Kahler, C. (2010). Psychometric validation of the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ) in a young adult clinical sample. Addictive Behaviors, 35(4), 331–336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.11.005

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Raistrick, D., Tober, G., Sweetman, J., Unsworth, S., Crosby, H., & Evans, T. (2014). Measuring clinically significant outcomes – LDQ, CORE-10 and SSQ as dimension measures of addiction. Psychiatric Bulletin (2014), 38(3), 112–115. https://doi.org/10.1192/pb.bp.112.041301

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