Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory (Brief-COPE)

The Brief-COPE is a 28 item self-report questionnaire designed to measure effective and ineffective ways to cope with a stressful life event. “Coping” is defined broadly as an effort used to minimise distress associated with negative life experiences.


Carver, C. S. (1997). You want to measure coping but your protocol is too long: Consider the brief cope. International journal of behavioral medicine, 4(1), 92-100.


Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of personality and social psychology, 56(2), 267. 

Dias,  C.,  Cruz,  J.  F.,  and  Fonseca,  A.  M.  (2012).  The  relationship  between multidimensional  competitive  anxiety,  cognitive  threat  appraisal,  and  coping strategies: A multi-sport study. Int. J. Sport Exerc. Psychol.10, 52–65. doi: 10.1080/1612197X.2012.645131

Hegarty, D., Buchanan, B. ( 2021, June 25).  The Value of NovoPsych Data – New Norms for the Brief-COPE. NovoPsych.

Eisenberg, S. A., Shen, B. J., Schwarz, E. R., & Mallon, S. (2012). Avoidant coping moderates the association between anxiety and patient-rated physical functioning in heart failure patients. Journal of behavioral medicine, 35(3), 253-261.

Poulus, D., Coulter, T. J., Trotter, M. G., & Polman, R. (2020). Stress and Coping in Esports and the Influence of Mental Toughness. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 628.