Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)

The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson et al., 1988) is a 20-item self- report measure to assess positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). PA is associated with pleasurable engagement with the environment, whereas NA reflects a dimension of general distress summarising a variety of negative states such as anger, guilt, or anxiety.




Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063


Crawford, J. R., & Henry, J. D. (2004). The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS): construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology / the British Psychological Society, 43(Pt 3), 245–265. https://doi.org/10.1348/0144665031752934

Heubeck, B. G., & Wilkinson, R. (2019). Is all fit that glitters gold? Comparisons of two, three and bi-factor models for Watson, Clark & Tellegen’s 20-item state and trait PANAS. Personality and Individual Differences, 144, 132–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.03.002