Equanimity Scale – 16 (ES-16)

The Equanimity Scale – 16 (ES-16) is a 16-item self-report mindfulness scale to assess the level by which a client is taking a non-reactive attitude to thoughts, feelings, and experiences. The ES-16 is for use with adults 18 years of age and older and can be useful in the therapeutic context to assess experiential avoidance and a client’s emotional reactivity – two factors that increase suffering (Grabovac et al. 2011, Hayes et al., 1996).


Rogers, H. T., Shires, A. G., & Cayoun, B. A. (2021). Development and Validation of the Equanimity Scale-16. Mindfulness, 12(1), 107–120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-020-01503-6


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Cayoun, B., Elphinstone, B., Kasselis, N., Bilsborrow, G., & Skilbeck, C. (2022). Validation and Factor Structure of the Mindfulness-Based Self Efficacy Scale-Revised. Mindfulness, 13(3), 751–765. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-022-01834-6

Desbordes, G., Gard, T., Hoge, E. A., Hölzel, B. K., Kerr, C., Lazar, S. W., Olendzki, A., & Vago, D. R. (2015). Moving beyond mindful- ness: defining equanimity as an outcome measure in meditation and contemplative research. Mindfulness, 6(2), 356–372. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-013-0269-8.

Eberth, J., Sedlmeier, P., & Schafer, T. (2019). PROMISE: a model of insight and equanimity as the key effects of mindfulness meditation. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2389. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02389.

Grabovac, A. D., Lau, M. A., & Willett, B. R. (2011). Mechanisms of mindfulness: a Buddhist psychological model. Mindfulness, 2(3), 154–166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-011-0054-5.

Hayes, S. C., Wilson, K. G., Gifford, E. V., Follette, V. M., & Strosahl, K. (1996). Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: a function- al dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(6), 1152–1168. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006x.64.6.1152.

Lindsay, E., Young, S., Smyth, J., Brown, K., & Creswell, D. (2018). Acceptance lowers stress reactivity: dismantling mindfulness train- ing in a randomized controlled trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 87, 63–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.09.015.