Male Depression Risk Scale (MDRS-22)

The 22-item Male Depression Risk Scale (MDRS-22) is a self-report instrument that can be used to identify adult men’s risk of depression, with a focus on externalising signs and symptoms (i.e., aggression & drug use; Rice et al., 2013). The MDRS-22 has a particular advantage over gender-neutral depression rating scales, as it specially measures factors empirically associated with depression and suicidality in men and emphasises maladaptive coping strategies. 



Rice, S. M., Fallon, B. J., Aucote, H. M., Möller-Leimkühler, A., Treeby, M. S., & Amminger, G. P. (2015). Longitudinal sex differences of externalising and internalising depression symptom trajectories: Implications for assessment of depression in men from an online study. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 61(3), 236–240.


Rice, S. M., Fallon, B. J., Aucote, H. M., & Möller-Leimkühler, A. M. (2013). Development and preliminary validation of the male depression risk scale: Furthering the assessment of depression in men. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(3), 950-958.

Herreen, D., Rice, S., Ward, L., & Zajac, I. (2022). Extending the Male Depression Risk Scale for use with older men: the effect of age on factor structure and associations with psychological distress and history of depression. Aging & Mental Health, 26(8), 1524–1532.

Rice, S. M., Ogrodniczuk, J. S., Kealy, D., Seidler, Z. E., Dhillon, H. M., & Oliffe, J. L. (2019). Validity of the Male Depression Risk Scale in a representative Canadian sample: sensitivity and specificity in identifying men with recent suicide attempt. Journal of Mental Health, 28(2), 132–140. doi: 10.1080/09638237.2017.1417565

Rice, S. M., Kealy, D., Seidler, Z. E., Oliffe, J. L., Levant, R. F., & Ogrodniczuk, J. S. (2020). Male-Type and Prototypal Depression Trajectories for Men Experiencing Mental Health Problems. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(19), 7322.

Walther, A., Grub, J., Ehlert, U., Wehrli, S., Rice, S., Seidler, Z. E., & Debelak, R. (2021). Male depression risk, psychological distress, and psychotherapy uptake: Validation of the German version of the male depression risk scale. Journal of Affective Disorders Reports, 4, 100107.