Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS)
This is a 28 item true/false scale that measures distress in social situations and the avoidance of social interactions. It also measures aspects of social anxiety including distress, discomfort and fear. Social avoidance was defined as “being with, talking to, or escaping from others for any reason . . . both actual avoidance and the desire for avoidance were included” (Watson & Friend, 1969, p. 449). Individuals who score high in the SADS are those who experience anxiety or distress with social interaction or anticipations of social interactions. Geist and Borecki (1982) found that persons high on the SAD had significantly lower levels of self-esteem. High SADS scores indicated significantly lower values of self-confidence, need for affiliation, need for change, and need for dominance (Geist and Borecki 1982).